Association between overweight/obesity and increased risk of periodontitis

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Abstract

Objective:

To investigate periodontitis as a co-morbidity of overweight/obesity in an age-matched sample of periodontitis cases or periodontally healthy controls.

Methods:

Participants were periodontally assessed using whole mouth clinical periodontal measures. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for diagnosis of periodontitis when body mass index (kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25–29.99 kg/m2, or obese BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were the explanatory variables. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated of all possible BMI (kg/m2) cut-off points discriminating individuals for diagnosis of periodontitis.

Results:

The study comprised 286 participants. BMI showed a dose–response association with increased odds (1.12 per increase of 1 kg/m2, 95% CI 1.05–1.20, p = 0.001) of being a case compared to a control independent of gender, ethnicity, smoking status and dental plaque level. Similarly overweight/obese were independently associated with increased odds of diagnosis of periodontitis for overweight (OR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.210–5.400, p = 0.014) and for obese (OR = 3.11, 95% CI 1.052–6.481, p = 0.015) compared to normal weight individuals. The ROC curve analysis confirmed diagnosis of periodontitis was 1.6 times more likely in an individual with the BMI ≥ 24.32 kg/m2.

Conclusions:

Overweight/obese individuals are more likely to suffer from periodontitis compared to normal weight individuals in this case–control sample.

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