Prevalence estimation of halitosis and its association with oral health-related parameters in an adult population of a city in North Italy

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Abstract

Aim:

No epidemiological data on halitosis are available from Italy. Thus, the aim of this population-based cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of halitosis in an urban adult population from North Italy and to explore related oral risk indicators.

Materials and Methods:

The survey used a two-stage probability sampling method to collect a representative sample of inhabitants, aged between 20 and 75 years, in the city of Turin. Seven hundred and forty-four adults were clinically examined (47% of sampled subjects) for oral malodor and periodontal conditions. Using a standardized questionnaire social, health and halitosis-related parameters were collected. Logistic models with interaction terms between tongue coating scores (TCS) and periodontal status were used to explore halitosis risk indicators.

Results:

The prevalence estimate of halitosis according to the organoleptic assessment was 53.51% (95% CI: 48.55–58.50). A statistically significant correlation was found between organoleptic and gas chromatography measurements (p < 0.0001). Stronger associations between halitosis and periodontitis were observed in people having higher TCS: adjusted odds ratio considering low and high TCS in individuals with severe periodontitis were 2.95 and 20.77 (p ≤ 0.003).

Conclusions:

Due to the high prevalence of halitosis in the Turin population, its diagnosis and management should be incorporated in comprehensive dental care.

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