The aim of this study was to evaluate effective bone regeneration using an autologous serum scaffold (alone or seeded with autologous bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, BM-MSCs), when implanted in a 30 mm length segmental mandibular defect in sheep.Materials and Methods:
The bone defect was filled either with serum scaffold alone (control group; n = 5) or combined with BM-MSCs (experimental group; n = 10). Bone regeneration was determined at 12 (T12; 2 control sheep and 4 experimental sheep) and 32 weeks (T32; 3 control and 6 experimental sheep), as measured by computed and microcomputed tomography and histological examination.Results:
Two sheep of the Experimental group died after surgery. While complete bone union in the control group was only observed at T32, it was observed both at T12 (1/4 sheep) and T32 (3/4 sheep) in the experimental group. When properties/characteristics of new bone where compared, a better bone quality, similar to native bone, was observed in the scaffold combined with BM-MSCs.Conclusions:
Based on these results, we conclude that the serum scaffold can promote efficient repair of large bone defects, but the combination with BM-MSCs accelerates this process, increasing significantly the amount and quality of bone formed.