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The objective of this case–control study was to compare the inflammatory response of peripheral blood from localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) patients when stimulated with healthy or diseased plaque samples.Whole blood and subgingival plaque samples were collected from 13 LAP subjects, 14 siblings of LAP subjects and six periodontally healthy individuals. Whole blood was stimulated for 24 h with plaque samples generated from healthy or diseased sites. The levels of 14 cyto/chemokines were detected using multiplex technology.Localized aggressive periodontitis-derived cultures displayed higher levels of G-CSF, INFγ, IL10, IL12p40, IL1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and TNFα, than control cultures regardless of stimulus used. Whole blood from healthy siblings displayed higher levels of IL-6 compared to control subjects, but lower levels than those observed in cultures from LAP participants.This study suggests that although bacteria is an important factor in eliciting the hyper-inflammatory response observed in LAP patients, the predisposition of host's response to bacterial presence may play a more significant role than the components of the stimulatory plaque.