A Mixed Method Review of Tobacco Cessation for the Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Clinician

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



To systematically survey the literature, describe the current tobacco science, and perform a mixed method review of randomized control trials of tobacco research in the cardiopulmonary population.


Mixed method review was conducted on major resource databases. Inclusion criteria were English language with a minimum follow-up of 6 months, published between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2016; adult smokers ≥18 years of age with cardiovascular and/or pulmonary disease; initiation of subject recruitment from hospital or community; tobacco cessation (TC) as the main aim of the study; biometric validation of smoking status; first-line TC medications; and nonpharmacological treatments.


The pooling of the 10 studies through forest plot analysis revealed the effect of tobacco continuous abstinence rates significant at 3, 6, and 12 months (total OR = 3.73; 95% CI, 2.58-5.38). Also, tobacco point prevalence rates of TC treatments demonstrated overall effects that were significant at the different end points (total OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.90-3.64). In both cases, the higher ORs were found in the 3 months end point. Most successful interventions consisted of a combination of pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy (predominantly counseling).


The evidence continues to support the recommended first-line TC pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological practices published in the 2008 national guidelines. Implications for cardiopulmonary rehabilitation clinicians are discussed.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles