We compared fasting lipids and other metabolic parameters in 211 normoglycemic patients meeting the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder undergoing continuous treatment with olanzapine, risperidone, or typical antipsychotics for at least 1 year. Blood samples were obtained after an 11-hour (±1 h) observed fast. Olanzapine-treated patients had significantly higher mean fasting triglyceride levels (2.3 ± 1.8 mmol/L) than risperidone- (1.7 ± 0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.022), but not typical antipsychotic-treated patients (1.8 ± 1 mmol/L). There were no significant differences in total low-density (LDL-C) or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein-B and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the olanzapine- versus risperidone-treated patients, but there were no significant differences between olanzapine- and typical antipsychotic-treated patients. Treatment groups did not differ significantly in LDL particle size, the prevalence of an "atherogenic" lipid profile, or estimated insulin sensitivity. Although interpretation of this study is limited by the cross-sectional study design, it provides additional insight concerning the relationship between antipsychotic use and plasma lipid parameters in this population.