Effects of CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 Genotypes on the Plasma Concentrations of Risperidone and 9-Hydroxyrisperidone in Korean Schizophrenic Patients

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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genotypes on the steady-state plasma levels of risperidone (RIS), 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RIS), and the active moiety (RIS plus 9-OH-RIS) in Korean schizophrenic patients. Sixty-four Korean schizophrenic patients were enrolled. CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genotypes were determined, and the plasma levels of RIS and 9-OH-RIS were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The dose-normalized plasma concentrations of RIS, 9-OH-RIS, and the active moiety were compared according to the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genotypes. Among the patients, 57 were CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers (EMs; CYP2D6*1/*1, *1/*10, and *10/*10) and 7 were CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs; CYP2D6*1/*5 and *10/*5). For the CYP3A5 genotype, 30 patients were CYP3A5*1 expressors (*1/*1 [n = 1] and *1/*3 [n = 29]) and 34 patients were CYP3A5 nonexpressors (*3/*3). The plasma levels of RIS (2.03 ng/mL per milligram for EMs vs 5.57 ng/mL per milligram for PMs, P < 0.001) and 9-OH-RIS (5.06 ng/mL per milligram for EMs vs 0.22 ng/mL per milligram for PMs, P < 0.001) were significantly different among CYP2D6 genotype groups, but the CYP2D6 EMs (7.09 ng/mL per milligram) and PMs (5.79 ng/mL per milligram) did not show no difference in the levels of the active moiety (P = 0.470). CYP3A5 nonexpressors exhibited higher plasma concentrations of both RIS and 9-OH-RIS than its expressors. In the case of 9-OH-RIS, CYP3A5 nonexpressors exhibited significantly higher concentrations than CYP3A5 expressors (5.42 vs 3.51 ng/mL per milligram, P = 0.022). In addition, concentrations of the active moiety were also significantly different between the CYP3A5 nonexpressors (8.39 ng/mL per milligram) and expressors (5.30 ng/mL per milligram, P = 0.005). In conclusion, both CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genotypes affected plasma levels of RIS and 9-OH-RIS, whereas the active moiety levels were influenced only by the CYP3A5 genotype but not by the CYP2D6 genotype.

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