Inter individual variation in lung cancer susceptibility may be modulated in part through genetic polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes, especially the genes involved in the Base Excision Repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Two of the genetic polymorphisms, XRCC1Arg399Gln and XPD Lys751Gln have been extensively studied in the association with lung cancer risk, although published studies have been inconclusive.Methods
In order to verify the role of the common variant alleles in the XPD gene, we have genotyped 211 lung cancer patients and 211 healthy controls using PCR-RFLP assays in a hospital based, case-control study in an Indian population. Logistic regression models were fit to examine the relationship between the log odds of lung cancer and each covariate. Overall Survival in relation to various genotypes and clinicopathological factors were analyzed using Kaplan Meier estimates and hazard ratios were calculated using Cox Regression analysis.Results
The carriers of XRCC1 399 AA genotypes were at higher risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.1, 95% CI:1.224-3.669, P = 0.007) than carriers of GG genotype. Subjects carrying 751 AC genotype were at an increased risk of carcinoma of the lung (OR = 1.8; 95% CI:1.233-2.807, P = 0.003) than subjects with AA genotypes. Compared to the XRCC1 399 GG/ XPD 751 AA reference genotype, the combined variants, XRCC1 399 GG/ XPD 751 AC+CC (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.037-3.481), P = 0.03), XRCC1 399 GA+AA/ XPD 751 AA (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.020-2.833, P = 0.04), XRCC1 399 GA+AA/XPD 751 AC+CC (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.582-4.864, P = 0.01), had significantly higher odds ratios. Increasing numbers of either XPD or XRCC1 variant alleles were associated with shorter overall survival, the risk being significant for the XRCC1 gene polymorphism (P = 0.01 by log-rank test). The hazard of dying was significant for the XRCC1 399 AA genotype (HR = 3.04, 95%CI: 1.393-6.670, P = 0.005). Higher tumour stage also came out as significant predictors of patient death.Conclusions
These findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes may modulate overall lung cancer susceptibility and that pathological stage and XRCC1 Arg399Gln independently predicted overall survival among Indian lung cancer patients.