Acetate-buffered crystalloid fluids: Current knowledge, a systematic review☆,☆☆,★,★★,★★★

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The concept of fluid resuscitation with balanced solutions containing acetate is relatively new. The knowledge about acetate mostly originates from nephrological research, as acetate was primarily used as a dialysis buffer where much higher doses of acetate are infused. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of an acetate-buffered crystalloid fluid when compared with other crystalloid infusates.


We report trials with the primary object of comparing an acetate-buffered infusion solute to another crystalloid infusate. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical trials register was conducted to identify suitable studies.


The search strategy used produced 1205 potential titles. After eliminating doubles, 312 titles and abstracts were screened, and 31 references were retrieved for full-text analysis. A total of 27 scientific studies were included in the study.


Acetate-buffered crystalloid solutes do have a favorable influence on microcirculation. To what extent the acetate-buffered crystalloids influence kidney function is controversially discussed and not yet clear. Metabolic alkalosis did not occur in a single study in humans after an acetate-buffered infusate; potassium levels stayed stable in all studies. Cardiac output and contractility seem to be positively influenced; nonetheless, data on maintenance of a target blood pressure remain inconclusive. Whether acetate-buffered crystalloid fluids lead to lower rates of acute kidney injury and increased survival when compared with normal saline is yet unclear and may depend on the amount of fluid administered.

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