The epidemiologic characteristics, temporal trends, predictors of death, and discharge disposition in patients with a diagnosis of sepsis: A cross-sectional retrospective cohort study

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To assess recent epidemiologic characteristics, temporal trends, and predictors of death and discharge disposition in patients with sepsis.

Material and methods:

This is a cross-sectional retrospective cohort study using the US National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data from 2009 to 2012. The study population included adults (18 years and older) with sepsis-related International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes at the time of discharge. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality and patient discharge disposition were derived from multivariate analyses using multinomial logistic models by SAS PROC LOGISTIC with GLOGIT link.


Of 1 303 640 patients admitted, 15% died, 30% were discharged to home without home care, 34% were transferred to a skilled outpatient facility, and 4% were transferred to another short-term hospital. In-hospital mortality decreased from 16.5% to 13.8% (P < .001) across time. Length of stay also decreased from 6.7 to 5.9 days (P < .001). Reductions in mortality and length of stay were seen despite an increase in the number of comorbidities (P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the strongest predictors of in-hospital mortality were respiratory, cardiovascular, and hepatic failures, and neurologic events. The predictors of transfer to an outpatient facility were a major operative procedure, neurologic event, respiratory failure, and weight loss. Weight loss was also an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality.


Certain comorbidities and organ failures were associated with death and discharge to a skilled outpatient facility.

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