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To assess the effects of urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) ulinastatin combined with thymosin alpha1 (Tα1) on sepsis.The meta-analysis included 8 randomized controlled trials (N = 1112 patients) on UTI-based therapy for sepsis published before July 10, 2016. Two investigators independently extracted data and assessed the quality of each study. The short-term mortality rate, duration of mechanical ventilator and vasopressor use, length of intensive care unit stay, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and differences in inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α) were assessed using statistical software.Treatment of UTI combined with Tα1 (UTI + Tα1) decreased the short-term mortality rate in septic patients by 36%, 35%, and 31% for 28, 60, 90 days, respectively. UTI + Tα1 decreased the duration of mechanical ventilation, APACHE II score, and levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. Treatment of UTI + Tα1 did not reduce the duration of vasopressor use and length of intensive care unit stay, or increase IL-10 levels. Because of the high heterogeneity of the included trials, the results should be carefully assessed.Treatment of UTI + Tα1 can suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines, decrease the APACHE II score, shorten the duration of mechanical ventilation, and improve the 28-day survival rate.Urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) combined with thymosin alpha1 (Tα1) (UTI + Tα1) suppresses the production of proinflammatory cytokines.UTI decreases the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and shortens the duration of mechanical ventilation.UTI improves the 28-day survival rate.