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One of the pathophysiological processes in sepsis is endothelial dysfunction, which leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Syndecan-1 is a major structural component of the endothelium and plays a key role in endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of syndecan-1 as a predictive marker for DIC in sepsis.We performed a prospective observational study of patients with sepsis from February 2014 to July 2015. Serial change of hemostatic markers, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic markers (antithrombin, PAI-1), endothelial markers (syndecan-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin), and inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, HMGB-1, histone-H3) were analyzed. Clinical data including APACHE II, SOFA, and DIC scores and 28-day mortality were also evaluated.During the study, 39 septic patients and 15 healthy controls were included. Syndecan-1 levels were significantly increased in the septic patients compared with the healthy controls. Of the septic patients, non-survivors had higher syndecan-1 levels than did the survivors on days 1, 2, and 4. Significant correlations on day 1 were found between syndecan-1 levels and APACHE II, SOFA, and DIC scores, hemostatic markers, IL-1β, IL-8, and PAI-1. Syndecan-1 levels on day 1 were also significantly higher in patients with than without DIC and had strong discriminative power for the prediction of both DIC development and subsequent mortality, with AUCs of 0.79 and 0.85, respectively.Syndecan-1 levels were associated with not only the severity of illness and mortality but also DIC development in sepsis, suggesting that syndecan-1 could be a predictive marker of DIC.Syndecan-1, which is a sensitive indicator of endothelial dysfunction, can be detected in plasma in sepsis.Syndecan-1 is associated with the severity and mortality in sepsis.Syndecan-1 could be a predictive marker of septic DIC.