Factors associated with in-hospital mortality among critically ill surgical patients with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections

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Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infection increases risk of mortality, other complications, and costs. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality among critically ill surgical patients.

Materials and methods:

This case-control study included critically ill surgical patients from 2011 to 2014 who had a carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), MDR P. aeruginosa, or MDR Acinetobacter spp. infection. Characteristics of patients surviving to hospital discharge were compared to those of non-survivors.


Sixty-two patients were included. Of these, 21 (33.9%) died prior to discharge. Vasopressors and mechanical ventilation prior to index culture were more common in non-survivors vs. survivors (76.2% vs. 46.3%, p = 0.03; and 100% vs. 63.4%, p = 0.001). ICU and hospital LOS prior to index culture was longer in non-survivors vs. survivors (median 19 vs. 4 days, p = 0.001; and median 25 vs. 7 days, p = 0.009). In multivariate logistic regression, achievement of source control was the only variable associated with decreased in-hospital mortality [0.04 (95% CI 0.003–0.52); p = 0.01].


MDR Gram-negative infection is associated with significant in-hospital mortality among critically ill surgical patients. Source control, along with prior ICU LOS, mechanical ventilation status, vasopressor use, and definitive antibiotic choice, are important predictors of survival in this population.

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