Genetic variants and acute kidney injury: A review of the literature☆

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Abstract

Purpose:

Limited data exists on potential genetic contributors to acute kidney injury. This review examines current knowledge of AKI genomics.

Materials and methods:

32 studies were selected from PubMed and GWAS Catalog queries for original data studies of human AKI genetics. Hand search of references identified 3 additional manuscripts.

Results:

33 of 35 studies were hypothesis-driven investigations of candidate polymorphisms that either did not consistently replicate statistically significant findings, or obtained significant results only in few small-scale studies. Vote-counting meta-analysis of 9 variants examined in >1 candidate gene study showed ≥50% non-significant studies, with larger studies generally finding non-significant results. The remaining 2 studies were large-scale unbiased investigations: One examining 2,100 genes linked with cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory syndromes identified BCL2, SERPINA4, and SIK3 variants, while a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified variants in BBS9 and the GRM7|LMCD1-AS1 intergenic region. All studies had relatively small sample sizes (<2300 subjects). Study heterogeneity precluded candidate gene and GWA meta-analysis.

Conclusions:

Most studies of AKI genetics involve hypothesis-driven (rather than hypothesis-generating) candidate gene investigations that have failed to identify contributory variants consistently. A limited number of unbiased, larger-scale studies have been carried out, but there remains a pressing need for additional GWA studies.

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