Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a benign lesion of unclear etiology involving the synovial membranes of joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. Its occurrence in the temporomandibular joint is particularly rare. Despite its benign nature, pigmented villonodular synovitis is described as being locally destructive to the surrounding structures. Imaging evaluation and histopathologic examination are crucial for correct diagnosis.
The purposes of the surgical treatment are for relief of pain and swelling, improvement of joint function, and prevention of further joint damage.
The authors report a case involving an adult male patient; complete excision of the temporomandibular joint lesion through an open arthroplasty approach was performed. To date, after 18 months of follow-up, the patient is disease free with an adequate preservation of function.