Bone Repair is Influenced by Different Particle Sizes of Anorganic Bovine Bone Matrix: A Histologic and Radiographic Study In Vivo

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to analyze histologically and radiographically the influence of particle size of anorganic bovine bone matrix (ABBM) on bone repair.

Materials and Methods

Four calvarial defects of 8 mm each were prepared in 18 adult New Zealand rabbits. The defects were then filled with either particulate autogenous bone (control group) or ABBM of large, medium, and small size granules. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30, and 60 days after surgery. The samples were radiographically examined before being submitted to histological processing.

Results

Autogenous bone showed a slight radiopacity at the beginning, which was increased at the final period, being very similar to the adjacent bone tissue. The large and medium size ABBM particles maintained the same radiographic behavior, showing a radiolucent area in the central portion of the defect at 60 days. ABBM of small size granules showed a slight radiolucity at the initial period, which was increased at the subsequent periods. More intense bone formation occurred in the control group (autogenous bone). All 3 particle sizes of the biomaterial resulted in inflammatory infiltration at 15 and 30 days. ABBM of small size granules lead to a greater amount of osteoid tissue, and the particles were almost totally reabsorbed within 60 days of implantation.

Conclusions

Autogenous bone graft lead to the best result in terms of bone defect repair; ABBM of large and medium size granules are not totally reabsorbed at the observed period; ABBM of small size granules was more intensively reabsorbed and led to a greater osteoid tissue formation when compared to the medium and large ABBM granules.

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