A 3-Dimensional Anthropometric Evaluation of Facial Morphology Among Chinese and Greek Population

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The use of 3-dimensional (3D) facial imaging has taken greater importance as orthodontists use the soft tissue paradigm in the evaluation of skeletal disproportion. Studies have shown that faces defer in populations. To date, no anthropometric evaluations have been made of Chinese and Greek faces.


The aim of this study was to compare facial morphologies of Greeks and Chinese using 3D facial anthropometric landmarks.

Materials and Methods

Three-dimensional facial images were acquired via a commercially available stereophotogrammetric camera capture system. The 3dMD face system captured 245 subjects from 2 population groups (Chinese [n = 72] and Greek [n = 173]), and each population was categorized into male and female groups for evaluation. All subjects in the group were between 18 and 30 years old and had no apparent facial anomalies. Twenty-five anthropometric landmarks were identified on the 3D faces of each subject. Soft tissue nasion was set as the “zeroed” reference landmark. Twenty landmark distances were constructed and evaluated within 3 dimensions of space. Six angles, 4 proportions, and 1 construct were also calculated. Student t test was used to analyze each data set obtained within each subgroup.


Distinct facial differences were noted between the subgroups evaluated. When comparing differences of sexes in 2 populations (eg, male Greeks and male Chinese), significant differences were noted in more than 80% of the landmark distances calculated. One hundred percent of the angular were significant, and the Chinese were broader in width to height facial proportions. In evaluating the lips to the esthetic line, the Chinese population had more protrusive lips.


There are differences in the facial morphologies of subjects obtained from a Chinese population versus that of a Greek population.

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