Socket contracture is one of the most common and difficult problems in anophthalmic patients. This study intended to evaluate postoperative outcomes of anophthalmic socket reconstruction using an autologous buccal mucosa graft in patients with socket contracture. Medical records and photographs of 44 anophthalmic patients who underwent socket reconstruction surgery using an autologous buccal mucosa graft were reviewed retrospectively. The time necessary for the graft surface to be completely vascularized was assessed, and fornix depth was measured before and 6 months after surgery. Postoperative cosmetic and functional outcomes were evaluated, and the factors that influence postoperative outcomes were investigated. The surgery was performed without any significant complications, and the patients only complained of oral discomfort within 1 week. The graft surface was fully vascularized about 1.1 months after surgery. Mean fornix depth after surgery was significantly deeper than that before surgery (9.1 mm, about 68.2% of the vertical size of the implanted graft). Preoperatively, 50.0% of the patient had cosmetic grades 1 and 2; however, 63.6% of the patients achieved grade 4, and 93.2% had higher than grade 3 after surgery. In functional outcomes, 86.4% of the patients presented functional success. Graft recontracture occurred in only 2 patients. Preoperative severe socket contracture was a factor associated with worse cosmetic outcome (P = 0.001). An autologous buccal mucosa can be a safe and effective graft material for the reconstruction of a contracted socket.