Management of Craniofacial Chondroid Tumors

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Abstract

Background

Craniofacial chondroid tumors (CFCTs) constitute less than 1% of all intracranial mass lesions. No protocol for evaluation and management of CFCTs is developed at the moment.

Materials and methods

We analyzed 51 patients with CFCTs operated on in Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute from 1980 until 2012, which included chondroma (15), chondroblastoma (3), chondromyxoid fibroma (11), and chondrosarcoma (22). Age varied from 2 to 76 years (mean, 40 y); the series included 23 women and 28 men. All tumors were divided into 4 groups: midline unilateral (8),midline bilateral (21), anterolateral (19), and lateral (3). This division was based on differences in surgical approaches (P = 0.009).

Results

All patients underwent surgical treatment. Complete removal was achieved in 20; subtotal, in 21; and partial, in 10. Two patients died, and early complicationswere observed in 10 cases. Early outcomes correlated with the benign nature of the tumors (P = 0.002). Follow-up data were available in 22 patients. Fifteen of 51 patients were reoperated on because of recurrence (a total of 43 reoperations were performed). The mean recurrence-free period was 45 months. In 3 patients, the tumor metastasized, and malignant transformation was observed in 3 cases. Sixteen patients received postoperative radiation therapy. Delayed sequelae occurred in 5 observations, and 5 patients died during long-term follow-up. Three-year survival in benign and malignant tumors was 87.5% and 55.6%, respectively, and 5-year survival was 83.3% and 40.0%, respectively.

Conclusion

Surgical resection is the mainstay in treatment of both benign and malignant craniofacial tumors, and adjuvant radiation therapy is mandatory in malignant lesions; however, it should be avoided in benign lesions.

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