Evaluation of the Transverse Craniofacial Morphology of Adolescents With Repaired Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

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Abstract

Aim:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the transverse craniofacial morphology of the adolescent patients affected by unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and to compare the findings with age- and sex-matched control group without any cleft using their cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.

Methods:

The study sample (n = 56 patients; mean age: 14.35 ± 3.06 years) consisted of 26 UCLP (n = 26 patients; 10 women and 16 men; mean age: 13.70 ± 2.94 years) and 30 control (n = 30 patients; 19 women and 11 men; mean age: 14.90 ± 3.10 years) subjects. Twenty-five conventional skeletal and dental tissue landmarks were identified. Twenty widely used frontal cephalometric variables (14 linear distances, 3 angles, and 3 ratios) were measured. The data were analyzed using the independent t-test between the groups.

Results:

Patients affected by UCLP had statistically significantly smaller interorbital width (89.83 ± 4.16 mm), maxillary width (58.02 ± 5.77 mm), maxillary intermolar width (52.83 ± 4.83 mm), and upper face height (57.64 ± 4.57 mm) (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Conversely, ANS-isf distance was significantly greater in the UCLP group (29.62 ± 5.19 mm) than in the control group (26.74 ± 3.99 mm) (P = 0.023). Moreover, alveolar cleft width had significant effect on Cr-ANS (r = 0.446, P = 0.022) and the ANS-isf (r = 0.459, P = 0.018) measurements.

Conclusion:

The UCLP group showed statistically significantly smaller values for interorbital width, maxillary width, maxillary intermolar width, and upper face height than the noncleft controls.

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