Evaluation of Eyeball and Orbit in Relation to Gender and Age

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The orbital aperture is the entrance to the orbit in which most important visual structures such as the eyeball and the optic nerve are found. It is vital not only for the visual system but also for the evaluation and recognition of the face. Eyeball volume is essential for diagnosing microphthalmos or buphthalmos in several eye disorders. Knowing the length of the optic nerve is necessary in selecting the right instruments for enucleation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate eyeball volume, orbital aperture, and optic nerve dimensions for a morphological description in a Turkish population sample according to gender and body side.

Paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) scans of 198 individuals (83 females, 115 males) aged between 5 and 74 years were evaluated retrospectively. The dimensions of orbital aperture, axial length and volume of eyeball, and diameter and length of the intraorbital part of the optic nerve were measured. Computed tomography examinations were performed on an Activion 16 CT Scanner (Toshiba Medical Systems, 2008 Japan). The CT measurements were calculated by using OsiriX software on a personal computer. All parameters were evaluated according to gender and right/left sides. A statistically significant difference between genders was found with respect to axial length of eyeball, optic nerve diameter, dimensions of orbital aperture on both sides, and right optic nerve length. Furthermore, certain statistically significant side differences were also found. There were statistically significant correlations between age and the axial length of the eyeball, optic nerve diameter, and the transverse length of the orbital aperture on both sides for the whole study group.

In this study we determined certain morphometric parameters of the orbit. These outcomes may be helpful in developing a database to determine normal orbit values for the Turkish population so that quantitative assessment of orbital disease and orbital deformities will be evaluated both for preoperative planning and for assessing postoperative outcomes.

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