Wounds involving the calvarium secondary to trauma or burns are rare. However, they can present with challenging potential clinical sequelae. A wide variety of reconstructive options have evolved over the last century. Technical aspects have progressively improved as well over time. For proper surgical restoration of function and cosmesis reconstructive surgeons must have a detailed understanding of both the scalp and skull anatomy. Several factors such as etiology of the injury, including whether or not calvarial bone defects exists or simply soft tissue loss, as well as size, local tissue environment and patient comorbidities play major roles in appropriate choice for reconstruction. Currently, there is no single treatment option for scalp or calvarial reconstruction after trauma or burns. However, reconstructive alternatives are constantly emerging with promising results.