Analysis of Anatomical Characteristics and Morphometric Aspects of Infraorbital and Accessory Infraorbital Foramina

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This study aimed to perform a morphological and morphometric study of the characteristics of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) and accessory infraorbital foramen (AIOF) in Brazilian skulls.


A sample calculation determined a total of 94 human skulls to be evaluated by a trained examiner for number, shape, diameters, and location of IOF in relation to anatomical landmarks. Number, size, shape, diameters, location, orientation, position, and distances in relation to anatomical landmarks were evaluated for the AIOF. Descriptive analysis, paired t test, Wilcoxon test, Pearson and Spearman correlations were used.


A total of 188 IOFs and 48 AIOFs were found. Circular outline was the predominant shape for both IOFs and AIOFs. Infraorbital foramens presented in left sides had a significantly greater transverse diameter and distance from medial margin of the orbit when compared with IOFs located on the right sides (P <0.001). Accessory infraorbital foramens were most frequently found on the left sides of the skulls and had a superomedial position in relation to the IOFs. Accessory infraorbital foramens located on right sides had a significantly greater distance to anterior nasal spine when compared with AIOFs located on the left sides (P <0.001).


The results of this solid methodology-based study can help guide surgeons in accurately locating the IOF and AIOF, and consequently, their neurovascular bundles to perform safe procedures during maxillofacial interventions.

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