Neurocutaneous Melanosis Presenting as Cavernous Hemangioma Persistent Abdominal Pain

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Abstract

Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by the presence of multiple congenital melanocytic nevi and the proliferation of melanocytes in the central nervous system. The authors present a 9-year-old Chinese boy whose clinical manifestations are intermittent headache for 2 months and persistent abdominal pain for 10 days. 3D-reconstruction computed tomography angiography image, digital subtraction angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging plus angiography (MRI+MRA) examinations results suggested that cavernoma at left frontal lobe potentially associated with hemorrhage. In addition, miliary abnormal signals were widely scattered on MRA image so that other malignant metastatic diseases cannot be ruled out. GI physical examination had not any abnormal findings, antispasmodic drugs were ineffective but antiepilepsy drugs were effective to abdominal pain. In surgery, no cavernoma was noticed but an accumulation of densely melanocytic mass located at the lesion on radiology images. The lesions spread along with perivascular of sylvian veins and leptomeningeal. Pathology investigation demonstrated brain metastatic malignant melanoma associated with hemosiderosis. The lesion of brain parenchyma was totally removed but the spread lesions could not be treated with surgery. Adjuvant radiotherapy was performed but failed to control the malignant development, still the patient died in 3 months postinitial operation. The authors conclude that abdominal pain was a manifestation of epilepsy related to the frontal lobe lesion. Neurocutaneous melanosis is a rare disease, brain metastases result in abdominal pain is rare even more, and it is worth the attention of clinicians.

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