A Morphological Classification Scheme for the Mandibular Hypoplasia in Treacher Collins Syndrome

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid

Abstract

Background:

Mandibular hypoplasia is a hallmark of Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), and its severity accounts for significant functional morbidity. The purpose of this study is to develop a mandibular classification scheme.

Methods:

A classification scheme was designed based on three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scans to assess 3 characteristic features: degree of condylar hypoplasia, mandibular plane angle (condylion-gonion-menton), and degree of retrognathia (sella-nasion-B point angle). Each category was graded from I to IV and a composite mandible classification was determined by the median value among the 3 component grades.

Results:

Twenty patients with TCS, aged 1 month to 20 years, with at least one 3D-CT prior to mandibular surgery were studied. Overall, 33 3D-CTs were evaluated and ordered from least to most severe phenotype with 10 (30%) Grade 1 (least severe), 14 (42%) Grade 2, 7 (21%) Grade 3, and 2 (7%) Grade 4 (most severe). Seven patients had at least 2 longitudinal scans encompassing an average 5.7 (range 5–11) years of growth. Despite increasing age, mandibular classification (both components and composite) remained stable in those patients over time (P = 0.2182).

Conclusion:

The authors present a classification scheme for the TCS mandible based on degree of condylar hypoplasia, mandibular plane angle (Co-Go-Me angle), and retrognathia (SNB angle). While there is a natural progression of the mandibular morphology with age, patients followed longitudinally demonstrate consistency in their classification. Further work is needed to determine the classification scheme's validity, generalizability, and overall utility.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles