Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach From the Surgeon Point of View

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Objective:In February 2009, the authors’ center formed a team of neurosurgeons, otolaryngologists, endocrinologists, and radiologists to perform pituitary surgery using the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETSA). This paper reviews the authors’ experience with the technique, pathological outcomes, hormone profiles, and postoperative complications.Methods:Between February 2009 and December 2015, 535 patients underwent the EETSA with 2-nostrils/4-hands surgery. All of the patients had preoperative neurophthalmological and endocrinological assessments and neuroimaging. Patients were followed for at least 6 months with otolaryngological evaluations.Results:The most common pathology treated was pituitary adenomas, with 390 (72.9%) patients. Of these, 287 (73.6%) were nonfunctioning adenomas. As the surgical method, the conventional 2-nostrils/4-hands technique was performed in 77 patients (14.4%), a right conventional nasoseptal flap and left modified nasoseptal rescue flap technique was used in 135 patients (25.2%), and bilateral modified nasoseptal rescue flaps were used in 323 patients (60.4%). Postoperative complications occurred in 46 patients (8.6%). The most common complications were vascular injury or hematoma (10 patients, 1.9%), and the most common postoperative sinonasal complaints were hyposmia or anosmia. Olfactory function was significantly decreased according to the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test (P <0.001) and Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test scores (P <0.001) evaluated 6 months postoperatively.Conclusions:Skull-base tumor surgery via an EETSA with a team approach was performed for various extended tumors. It is important to consider postoperative sinonasal dysfunction, such as hyposmia or anosmia, and to have this followed by an otolaryngologist.

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