Medical therapy with dopamine agonist is very effective in controlling prolactin serum levels and it usually represents the first therapeutic choice for prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas. However, many patients present increase of prolactinemia after withdrawal of medical therapy which consequently should be taken for long time; other present intolerance to medical therapy; women with pregnancy need to withdraw dopamine agonists with consequent potential related problems: in these patients transsphenoidal surgery can be requested. The presented study concerns the efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery in patients affected by microprolactinoma after treatment with medical therapy for different periods of time. Different postsurgical results were achieved in 2 groups of 24 (group 1) and 25 (group 2) patients affected by microprolactinoma who had taken medical therapy for a period of time respectively longer or shorter than 1 year. In summary, the authors observed in group 1 a rate of hormonal remission of 33.3% and an overall prolactinemia improvement with possibility of medical therapy withdrawal in 49.9% of patients. In group 2, the authors observed a rate of hormonal remission of 84% and an overall rate of improvement with no necessity of medical therapy of 92%. Therefore, the authors’ experience showed that the surgical option for the therapy of microprolactinomas should be indicated within 1 year from the beginning of medical therapy with dopamine agonist, to achieve a high rate of hormonal remission and possibility to withdraw medical therapy. The authors’ protocol for microprolactinoma treatment is presented.