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Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are rare hypervascular benign tumors that originate from the paraganglia at the carotid bifurcation. The red cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and mean platelet volume (MPV) may serve as markers in inflammatory, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases. However, their prognostic value in CBTs is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the leukocyte count, MPV, RDW, and NLR before and after surgery in patients with CBTs.This retrospective trial included data from 80 patients with CBTs and 65 age-matched healthy controls. The leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts, RDW, and MPV were extracted and NLR was calculated from the complete blood count results of participants.The leukocyte and neutrophil counts as well as RDW levels were significantly increased in patients with CBTs compared with healthy controls (P = 0.005, P = 0.003, and P = 0.026; respectively). Patients with CBTs had lower lymphocytes counts (P = 0.241) and higher NLRs (P = 0.054); however, the difference was statistically insignificant. Moreover, no statistically significant difference was detected between groups in terms of platelet counts and MPV levels. Furthermore, the leukocyte count, platelet numbers, MPV, RDW, and NLR levels in patients with CBTs were not statistically significant after surgery (all; P > 0.05).This is the first study that documents the increased RDW levels and leukocyte count in patients with CBTs. The combined use of RDW and the leukocyte count along with other clinical assessments can be used as a biomarker for CBTs. Further clinical trials with larger cases series are required to determine the actual predictive roles of these systemic biomarkers.