The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of complications related to orthognathic surgery performed by surgeons in train. A retrospective study was conducted between 2005 and 2014, analyzing the clinical records of patients treated in the authors’ Department. Patients who underwent orthognathic surgery were included, under a bidimensional analysis and with the conventional orthosurgical sequence; intraoperative complications were identified, such as the occurrence of a bad split, bleeding, tissue injury, among others and postoperative variables such as impaired sensation, infection, and alterations in the osteosynthesis systems. A statistical analysis was done using χ2 and Student t tests, considering a statistical significance when P < 0.05. Two hundred fifty patients were included with an average follow-up of 13 months; 62.8% were women and 37.2% were men; 18.8% of the subjects presented some type of intraoperative or postoperative complication; excluding relapse and complications due to loss of bonding of the orthodontic device, a 12.4% complication rate was observed; intraoperative complications were 8% and postoperative complications 10.4%. Only the sensorineural alterations were associated with the mandibular surgery (P < 0.05). Finally, orthognathic surgery is relatively safe and produces a low number of complications when it is performed by surgeons in train.