Pulling and Pushing Stem Cells to Control Their Differentiation

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Abstract

Much has already been done to achieve precisely controlled and customised regenerative therapies. Thanks to recent advances made in several areas relevant to regenerative medicine including the use of stimuli-responsive materials, 4-dimensional biofabrication, inducible pluripotent stem cells, control of stem cell fate using chemical and physical factors, minimal access delivery, and information-communication technology. In this short perspective, recent advances are discussed with a focus on a recent report on the use of mechanical stretching of nanoparticle-laden stem cells by using external magnetic field to induce defined cardiac line differentiation. Although more and more tools are becoming available for engineering tissue models tissues and the range of potential applications is expanding, there is still much work to be done before it is proved to work with human cells, form tissues and ultimately achieve application in the clinic.

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