Comparison of the Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Male and Female Vocal Folds

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To investigate effects of smoking cigarette on male and female larynges and compare them.


Eighteen adult Wistar Albino rats were included to study; 9 were male and 9 female. The exposure groups each contained 6 rats, and the control groups 3 rats. Six male constituted group 1 and 6 female constituted group 2. Group 1 and 3 were exposed to smoke. Group 2 and 4 were composed of 3 males and 3 females, respectively. Smoke from 10 cigarettes was delivered in each of the morning and afternoon daily for 1 month. At the end of 4 weeks, all rats were sacrificed and their larynges were evaluated histopathologically.


Microscobic evaluation of epithelium of vocal folds revealed no significant difference between study groups. There was also no difference between study and control groups. Subepitelial tissue showed no difference between study groups but angiogenesis and inflammation were higher in study groups. Epithelial analysis of false vocal folds showed significant difference between study groups. Female epithelium showed more hyperplastic and metaplastic changes.


Cigarette smoke damaged both the vocal folds and false vocal folds. The female false vocal folds were more susceptible to damage than the males.

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