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Adipofascial flaps (AFF) with acellular dermal matrix (ADM) have the potential to reconstruct neural tube defects without sacrificing muscle that may be critical for long-term function. Comparative studies between myocutaneous flap (MF) reconstruction, the accepted standard reconstructive technique, and AFF/ADM remain under-reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of myelomeningocele reconstruction using muscle sparing AFF/ADM versus MF.A retrospective comparison was conducted on consecutive myelomeningocele patients reconstructed with MF or AFF/ADM over an 84-month period. Data analyzed included: basic demographics, defect size, reconstructive technique, complications, and length of follow-up. A supplemental meta-analysis based on systematic review of literature was performed to compare alternative reconstructive options.Twelve patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. Median age, weight, and defect size at reconstruction in the AFF/ADM group (n = 6) was 37.5 weeks, 3.25 kg, and 20.0 cm2, respectively, and in the MF group (n = 6) was 37 weeks, 3.6 kg, and 22.5 cm2 (P > 0.5). For the AFF/ADM versus MF groups, median follow-up was 33.8 versus 22.6 months, reoperation rate was 0% versus 17% (P = 1.0), and complex skin flap closure rate was 17% versus 100% (P = 0.015). No cerebrospinal fluid leaks or surgical site infections occurred in either group. Meta-analysis of the literature revealed no statistically significant difference in complications rates between muscle and nonmuscle flap reconstruction (P > 0.5); potential long-term sequelae of muscle flap harvest were not included.Muscle sparing AFF with ADM is a safe and effective surgical alternative to muscle flaps for lumbar myelomeningocele reconstruction.