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To evaluate the relationship between the hyoid-related cephalometric measurements and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).A total of 56 subjects were evaluated by lateral cephalometric radiography and polysomnography (PSG). The OSA diagnosis was made according to the patients’ AHI. Included were 13 primary snoring, 16 mild OSA, 10 moderate OSA, and 17 severe OSA. C3-hyoid distance and mentum-hyoid distance were measured on lateral cephalogram. Cephalometric measurements and PSG parameters were compared among the different OSA groups.The distance between the mentum and hyoid was significantly longer in the severe OSA group than in the primary snoring, mild OSA, and moderate OSA groups (P = 0.029). There was a significant positive correlation between the AHI value and the distance of the mentum hyoid (r = 0.368, P = 0.005). The C3-hyoid distance among the groups was not statistically significant different (P = 0.889).The mentum-hyoid distance of patients with severe OSA was longer compared to the other OSA groups. These patients might have more benefit from the surgeries that have an impact on the position of the hyoid bone compared to other patients with OSA.