Le Fort III distraction osteogenesis may be indicated in the treatment of syndromic craniosynostosis with severe midface retrusion and proptosis. This study assesses the stability of proptosis correction over 10-years.
A retrospective review identified 15 patients with syndromic craniosynostosis treated by Le Fort III distraction prior to age 10 (9 males, 6 females; age 4.9 ± 1.5 years). Untreated, non-craniosynostotic age- and gender-matched controls were obtained from historical growth records. Lateral cephalometric tracings at pre-surgery (T1), immediate (T2), 1 year (T3), 5 years (T4), and 10 years (T5) (n = 11) post-distraction were superimposed using the best-fit of cranial base. Proptosis severity was defined as the horizontal distance between the Ant. Globe cephalometric point and orbital rim landmarks Orbitale and Lat. Orbit.
The orbital rim advanced 10.54 ± 3.78 mm (P < 0.001) at Orbitale and 9.73 ± 4.54 mm (P > 0.001) at Lat. Orbit from T1 to T2; Ant. Globe advanced 3.13 ± 3.02 mm (p 0.001). Proptosis decreased 7.41 ± 5.29 mm (P < .001) from Orbitale and 6.60 ± 6.50 mm (p 0.002) from Lat. Orbit. Comparison to controls demonstrated phenotypic correction. In craniosynostotic patients from T2 to T5, the bony orbital rim demonstrated non-significant remodeling posteriorly and inferiorly. Anterior Globe moved 3.79 ± 1.47 mm anteriorly (P < .001), which did not differ significantly from controls. Proptosis increased by 4.18 ± 2.94 mm in craniosynostotic patients from T2 to T5.
Le Fort III distraction was stable, with no significant anteroposterior relapse of the maxilla or bony orbit. Phenotypic relapse of proptosis to pre-treatment levels occurred through deficient growth of the midface, surface resorption at the orbital rim, and preservation of normal forward movement of Ant. Globe.