Glabellar Rejuvenation in Forehead Lift: Reversed Periosteum or Dermal Fat Graft to Cover Pedicled Glabellar Flap

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Abstract

Forehead aging is characterized by wrinkles, loss of skin elasticity, brow ptosis, and soft-tissue atrophy. For patients with prominent rhytids and marked brow ptosis, forehead lift is still the most effective treatment with a persisting result. In order to eliminate the glabellar wrinkles, forehead lift usually requires the removal of the corrugator supercilii muscle and procerus, which can lead to glabellar flattening or depression. Instead of muscle removal, the corrugator supercilii muscle, procerus, and the underlying galea were dissected as a pedicled glabellar flap. Then reversed periosteum or dermal fat graft was used to cover the glabellar flap to restore the glabellar volume. From January 2005 to November 2014, a total of 164 coronal and 42 trichophytic forehead lifts were performed. Reversed periosteum was used to cover the glabellar flap in 191 patients while dermal fat graft was applied in 15 patients with a follow-up period ranging from 6 months to 10 years. There was no irregularity or depression in the glabellar region in the group of reversed periosteal flap. The take of dermal fat graft placed over the glabellar flap was minimal. Complications from surgical procedures occurred in 2.91% of the patients. There was 1 asymmetry, 4 patients with higher than desired frontal hairline for implantation of autologous follicular units, and 1 patient with scar hyperplasia. There was no hematoma or nerve injury, no permanent numbness, and no alopecia. The techniques are simple and effective to eliminate the glabellar wrinkles and maintain or restore the glabellar volume.

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