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In this study the authors evaluated the outcomes of tracheal resection and anastomosis in postintubation tracheal stenosis. The authors also aimed to identify clinical and radiological factors associated with restenosis. Thirty-four consecutive patients were included in the study. Patients with subglottic stenosis who underwent procedures involving cricoid cartilage and patients with other etiologies were excluded from the study. Univariate analysis was performed to determine the risk factors for restenosis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated for the diameter of the narrowest part of the trachea (Dst) and the distance between cricoid cartilage and stenosis (Dcs). Of the 34 patients, 31 (91.1%) patients were successfully decannulated. Nineteen (55.8%) patients had complications. After univariate analysis, Dst (P = 0.001), Dcs (P = 0.001), smoking (P = 0.007) and grade of the stenosis (P = 0.003) were significantly associated with restenosis. The sensitivity and specificity were 90.9% and 77.3%, respectively, when the cutoff value for Dst was 4 mm. Sensitivity and specificity were 72.7% and 100%, respectively, when the cutoff value for Dcs was 10 mm. Tracheal resection and anastomosis is an effective surgical method for treating postintubation tracheal stenosis. In our series, 91.1% of the patients with postintubation tracheal stenosis were successfully decannulated. Restenosis was the most common complication. The diameter of the narrowest part of the trachea (Dst), the distance between cricoid cartilage and stenosis (Dcs), smoking and grade of stenosis were significantly associated with restenosis.