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Third lower molar partially erupted is commonly encountered in dental practice. This situation challenges clinicians with the dilemma whether to remove or to monitor it, because this molar can cause pathology of the adjacent second molar. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the relationship between third mandibular molar and distal cervical caries in second molar. This retrospective study analyzed 55 digital orthopantograms of adult patients and a total number of 95 mandibular third molars were assessed for eruption status, angulation, radiographic evidence of caries or restoration in the mandibular third molar, and radiographic evidence of caries or restoration in the distal surface of the mandibular second molar. The distal cervical caries in second molar is associated with fully erupted and partially erupted wisdom molar in horizontal, mesioangular and vertical position and less with presence of caries in third molar. There are caries lesions in distal second molars in mesioangular position when adjacent third molar is caries free.