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The number of elderly patients with mandibular fracture is rapidly increasing. To improve outcome, it is important to understand the age-related characteristics of mandibular fracture. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the impact of atrophic change on mandibular fracture in elderly patients. The retrospective study was conducted in patients aged ≥65 years old, who underwent surgery for the treatment of mandibular fracture in our hospital from March 2006 until March 2015. Patient characteristics, such as age and gender, causes of injury, anatomic location of fracture, height of mandibular body, extent of atrophy, location of surgical sites, postoperative outcomes, and the follow-up period, were examined. Descriptive statistics were compared between atrophic and nonatrophic mandibles. The patients included 17 males and 12 females and the mean age was 71.9 years old. The average follow-up period was 6.06 months. Regarding occlusion and complications, there were no statistical differences between the atrophic and nonatrophic mandibular fractures. As major complications, nonunion occurred in 2 patients and malunion in 1 patient. There was no mortality associated with anesthesia or surgery. Atrophic and nonatrophic mandibular fractures in elderly patients can be treated successfully with surgery. There was no significant difference with respect to major complications between patients with atrophic and nonatrophic mandibular fractures.