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Exercise train (ET) stimulates muscle response in pathological conditions, including aging. The molecular mechanisms by which exercise improves impaired adiponectin/adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1)-related muscle actions associated with aging are poorly understood. Here we observed that in a senescence-accelerated mouse prone 10 (SAMP10) model, long-term ET modulated muscle-regenerative actions.25-week-old male SAMP10 mice were randomly assigned to the control and the ET (45 min/time, 3/week) groups for 4 months. Mice that were maintained in a sedentary condition served controls.ET ameliorated aging-related muscle changes in microstructure, mitochondria, and performance. The amounts of proteins or mRNAs for p-AMPKα, p-Akt, p-ERK1/2, p-mTOR, Bcl-XL, p-FoxO3, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ coactivator, adiponectin receptor1 (adpoR1), and cytochrome c oxidase-IV, and the numbers of CD34+/integrin-α7+ muscle stem cells (MuSCs) and proliferating cells in the muscles and bone-marrow were enhanced by ET, whereas the levels of p-GSK-3α and gp91phox proteins and apoptotic cells were reduced by ET. The ET also resulted in increased levels of plasma adiponectin and the numbers of bone-marrow (BM)-derived circulating CD34+/integrin-α7+ MuSCs and their functions. Integrin-α7+ MuSCs of exercised mice had improved changes of those beneficial molecules. These ET-mediated aged muscle benefits were diminished by adiponectin and AdipoR1 blocking as well as AMPK inhibition. Finally, recombinant mouse adiponectin enhanced AMPK and mTOR phosphorylations in BM-derived integrin-α7+ cells.These findings suggest that ET can improve aging-related impairments of BM-derived MuSC regenerative capacity and muscle metabolic alterations via an AMPK-dependent mechanism that is mediated by an adiponectin/AdipoR1 axis in SAMP10 mice.