This study assessed the clinical utility of near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green in off-pump beating heart total endoscopic and robotic-assisted coronary artery bypass using the fluorescence imaging system for theda Vinci Sion a canine model for vessel identification, graft patency, and correlation of graft patency with ultrasound transit-time flow measurement probe.Methods:
Beating heart total endoscopic robotic-assisted coronary artery bypass was performed on eight canine using indocyanine green and fluorescence imaging to identify the internal mammary artery prior to harvesting, the coronary vessel anatomy, and the patency of the beating heart total endoscopic coronary artery bypass anastomosis. Three to four injections of indocyanine green with a dose of 1.25 mg to 2.5 mg were administered per animal. Transit-time flow was measured in each of the dogs.Results:
High definition 3D images were obtained. The camera working distance, indocyanine green dosage, internal mammary artery visualization, coronary artery visualization, patency by indocyanine green injection, and patency by transit-time flow were recorded. Six cases were completed successfully, and all demonstrated correlation between indocyanine green measurements of flow, and the transit-time flow measurement.Conclusion:
Use of near-infrared fluorescence with indocyanine green was feasible in our study, and would be of great benefit during total endoscopic robotic-assisted coronary artery bypass using the fluorescence imaging–capableda Vinci Sisystem to help identify the internal mammary artery, delineate the coronary anatomy, and also determine patency of the anastomoses. This procedure correlated well with transit-time flow measurement.