Outcomes of Double Inlet Left Ventricle and Similar Morphologies: A Single Center Comparison of Initial Pulmonary Artery Banding Versus a Norwood-Type Reconstruction

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Abstract

Objective:

Patients with double inlet left ventricle (DILV)/transposition and similar morphologies have their systemic outflow traverse a bulboventricular foramen (BVF), which has a propensity to narrow over time. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of initial pulmonary artery banding (PAB) compared with the Norwood-type reconstruction in neonates.

Methods:

A retrospective study of children with DILV and similar morphologies presenting between 1982 and 2012. The outcomes of initial PAB (n = 17) are compared with a Norwood-type reconstruction (n = 20). The two groups were similar with respect to age, gender, weight, noncardiac syndromes, and Fontan completion. Mean follow-up was longer in PAB patients (13.3 ± 9.8 years) versus Norwood (4.5 ± 3.0 years, p = 0.001).

Results:

Survival was 75% at eight years in the Norwood group versus 71% in the PAB group (p = 0.76). Mortality in the Norwood group was higher before 2002 (p = 0.06). The age of patients who underwent a bidirectional Glenn shunt was significantly higher for PAB group (PAB, 9.1 ± 1.4 months vs. Norwood, 6.1 ± 1.6 months; p < 0.001). Freedom from any type of reintervention (systemic outflow obstruction or coarctation) was similar (Norwood, 83% vs. PAB, 71%; p = 0.62). Freedom from heart block with a pacemaker insertion was significantly better for Norwood patients (Norwood, 89% vs. PAB, 41%; p = 0.001).

Conclusions:

The Norwood-type reconstruction provides good palliation in this subgroup of patients and avoids the need for subsequent intracardiac operations, maintaining an unobstructed systemic outflow tract and avoiding the risk of heart block. Survival does not differ depending on the type of procedure. Patients with PAB show comparable satisfactory early and long-term results, with an increasing reoperation risk and heart block remaining a major concern.

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