Does Magnesium-Supplemented Cardioplegia Reduce Cardiac Injury? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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Abstract

Background:

Magnesium is often used to supplement cardioplegic solutions during cardiopulmonary bypass due to its cardioprotective effect during ischemia and reperfusion. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of magnesium-supplemented cardioplegia versus an inactive (placebo) control cardioplegia on reducing cardiac injury after cardiac arrest surgery, as found by randomized, controlled trials.

Methods:

The Medline, Cochrane Library, and Chinese literature databases (CJFD, CBM, CSJD, Wanfang) were comprehensively searched for reports of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating magnesium-supplemented cardioplegic solutions. The clinical parameters and outcomes of interest were the incidence of postoperative low cardiac output, auto-rebeating rate, ICU stay length, new onset postoperative atrial fibrillation, peak value of CK-MB (and/or cTnI), incidence of myocardial infarction, and in-hospital mortality.

Results:

Ten trials, with a total of 1214 patients, were included. The frequency of low cardiac output, inotropic utilization, and myocardial infarction, as well as auto-rebeating rate, length of ICU stay and in-hospital mortality, were similar between the two groups. There was a marginal reduction in the incidence of new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation in the magnesium-supplemented cardioplegia group.

Conclusions:

The advantage of magnesium-supplemented cardioplegia, compared with cardioplegia without magnesium, remains unconvincing based on the current evidence. The decision to add magnesium to the cardioplegic solution to a patient undergoing cardiac arrest surgery should be carefully considered. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12518 (J Card Surg 2015;30:338–345)

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