CD34-reactive tumors of the skin. An updated review of an ever-growing list of lesions

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Over the past few years, a growing number of cutaneous tumors expressing CD34 is being reported. The list contains benign and malignant neoplasms as well as reactive and hamartomatous lesions of diverse lineages of differentiation, including fibroblastic, myofibroblastic, fibrohistiocytic, vascular, neural, adipocytic, smooth muscle, hematopoietic, melanocytic and epithelial. The more frequent diagnostic difficulties are found in spindle cell proliferations, mainly in those of the fibrocytic lineage. In part, this is because of the fact that in this area are, aside to well-defined entities, histologically and clinically diverse, recently reported cutaneous CD34-reactive lesions, whose definitions, limits and relationships are not completely established. The CD34 expression plays a key role in the differential diagnosis of some tumors, such as dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, epithelioid sarcoma (ES) or pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts, with important therapeutic consequences. In others, as in desmoplastic trichilemmoma, it can help to resolve diagnostic problems in concrete cases. Finally, in many of the CD34-positive lesions, the diagnosis with the hematoxylin and eosin stain is straightforward. However, in all of them, the knowledge of the immunohistochemical profile contributes to our understanding of the cutaneous pathology.

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