PD-1, S-100 and CD1a expression in pseudolymphomatous folliculitis, primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) and cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia

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Background:Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis is a lymphoid proliferation that clinically and histopathologically mimics primary cutaneous extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). In this study, we assessed the diagnostic value of three immunohistochemical markers, programmed death-1 (PD-1), CD1a and S100.Methods:We evaluated 25 cases of cutaneous lymphoid proliferations with established diagnoses, including 9 patients with pseudolymphomatous folliculitis, 11 with MALT lymphoma, and 5 with cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH). The clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics were reviewed and three major characteristics assessed: (a) proportion of T cells expressing PD-1, (b) pattern of expression of CD1a by dendritic cells and (c) pattern of expression of S100 by dendritic cells.Results:We found pseudolymphomatous folliculitis to have a significant increase in PD-1+ T cells compared with MALT lymphoma (p < 0.0001). The pattern of CD1a staining is also informative: MALT lymphoma is significantly more likely to demonstrate a peripheral concentration of CD1a+ dendritic cells around lymphoid nodules than pseudolymphomatous folliculitis (p < 0.0003) or CLH (p < 0.05). Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis demonstrates an interstitial distribution of CD1a+ cells more often than MALT lymphoma (p < 0.04). S100 staining was not a helpful discriminator.Conclusions:Histopathologic factors including PD-1 and CD1a staining patterns may allow for more certainty in distinguishing lymphoid hyperplasia, including pseudolymphomatous folliculitis, from MALT lymphoma.

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