Resonant Hopf–Hopf Interactions in Delay Differential Equations

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A second-order delay differential equation (DDE) which models certain mechanical and neuromechanical regulatory systems is analyzed. We show that there are points in parameter space for which 1:2 resonant Hopf–Hopf interaction occurs at a steady state of the system. Using a singularity theoretic classification scheme [as presented by LeBlanc (1995) and LeBlanc and Langford (1996)], we then give the bifurcation diagrams for periodic solutions in two cases: variation of the delay and variation of the feedback gain near the resonance point. In both cases, period-doubling bifurcations of periodic solutions occur, and it is argued that two tori can bifurcate from these periodic solutions near the period doubling point. These results are then compared to numerical simulations of the DDE.

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