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To evaluate the content and construct validity of the existing PROMIS Pediatric Parent-Proxy Peer Relationships Measure in 5- to 12-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).Parents of 121 children aged 5 to 12 years who met DSM-IV criteria for ASD completed the Peer Relationships Measure using computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Parents also completed the Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2) and a demographic form. Intelligence quotient test results were extracted from clinical or research records. Five parents participated in semi-structured interviews about their child's peer relationships and the item content on the Peer Relationships Measure.The children in the sample were primarily male (87%). The sample was racially and ethnically diverse, and parents were predominantly highly educated. The mean T-score (SD) on the Peer Relationships Measure was 36 (8), with a range from 15 to 62. For 98% of subjects, the CAT required administration of 5 items to reach a standard error of measurement of less than 4 T-score units. The Peer Relationships Measure demonstrated a large correlation with the SRS-2 (r = −0.60, p < .0001). In semi-structured interviews, parents reported that the items on the Peer Relationships Measure were relevant to the peer relationships of their child with ASD, but they reported a few challenges related to variability in their children's peer relationships over time and to somewhat limited knowledge of relationships in school.The PROMIS Pediatric Parent-Proxy Peer Relationships Measure may be an efficient, precise, and valid measure of peer relationships for 5- to 12-year-old children with ASD.