Income Relates to Adherence in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes Through Parenting Constructs

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



Informed by the family stress and family investment models, this study investigated whether income is indirectly related to adherence and glycemic control through parenting constructs among youth with type 1 diabetes (TID).


Youth and their families (n = 390) from 4 geographically dispersed pediatric endocrinology clinics in the United States were participants in a multisite clinical trial from 2006 to 2009 examining the efficacy of a clinic-integrated behavioral intervention targeting family disease management for youth with TID. Baseline data were collected from youth aged 9 to 14 years and their parents. Parents reported family income and completed a semistructured interview assessing diabetes management adherence. Parents and children reported diabetes-specific parent-child conflict. Children completed measures of collaborative parent involvement and authoritative parenting. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a biomarker of glycemic control, was analyzed centrally at a reference laboratory. The relations of income, parenting variables, regimen, adherence, and HbA1c were examined using structural equation modeling.


Lower family income was associated with greater parent-child conflict and a less authoritative parenting style. Authoritative parenting was associated with more collaborative parent involvement and less parent-child conflict, both of which were associated with greater adherence, which was associated with more optimal glycemic control (p < 0.05 all associations). Indirect effects of family income on adherence and glycemic control through parenting constructs were significant (p < 0.001).


Findings lend support for the family stress and family investment models, suggesting that lower family income may negatively impact parent-child constructs, with adverse effects on diabetes management.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles