Factorial Invariance of a Campus Climate Measure Across Race, Gender, and Student Classification

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Abstract

Invariance analyses using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to test a model of campus climate perceptions for its equivalence in a combined sample of 2,634 undergraduate and graduate university students across race, gender, and student status. Results suggested that a multidimensional model of campus climate comprised of psychological and behavioral climate dimensions appears to be supported for both undergraduate and graduate students across race/ethnicity and gender. Nonequivalence of factor loadings seen in all three invariance comparisons indicated that relationships between items and the underlying factors differed in magnitude on some climate dimensions between males and females, White and ethnic minority students, and graduate versus undergraduate students. Implications for future climate measurement and higher education policy and practice are discussed.

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