Differences in Use of Glucose Rate of Change (ROC) Arrows to Adjust Insulin Therapy Among Individuals With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Who Use Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM)

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Abstract

Objective:

To understand differences between individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in utilization of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data to adjust insulin therapy, either continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or multiple daily insulin injections (MDI).

Methods:

We surveyed 300 individuals who regularly used real-time CGM, using 70 questions to obtain information about general CGM use and response to glucose rate of change (ROC) arrows.

Results:

The survey was completed by 222 T1D and 78 T2D respondents treated with intensive insulin therapy. T1D respondents included CSII (n = 166) and MDI (n = 56) users. T2D respondents were more balanced: 34 (44%) versus 44 (56%), respectively. A larger percentage of T1D then T2D respondents reported a constant use of CGM (85% vs 61%, P < .001). T1D and T2D respondents reported similar substantial increases in correction dosages in response to rapidly increasing glucose (>3 mg/dL/min; 2 arrows up): +140% versus +136%, P = .4534. However, T1D respondents reported making smaller correction dosage reductions than T2D respondents in response to rapidly decreasing glucose (−42% vs −80%, P < .001). Differences between T1D and T2D respondents were also observed in mealtime dosage adjustments in response to rapidly increasing glucose compared to when glucose is stable (flat arrow) at 110 mg/dl: +81% versus +108%, respectively (P = .003). Although these adjustments are statistically different, both are large.

Conclusions:

CGM users often rely on ROC information when determining insulin doses and tend to be more aggressive in their insulin adjustments despite differences in type of diabetes.

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