Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is used less for type 2 than for type 1 diabetes because of inconsistencies in evidence of effectiveness. We reviewed published guidelines on intensive insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes to assess whether updating of guidance is needed with respect to evidence used and recommendations for CSII in diabetes management.Methods:
A literature review was performed to identify published national and international guidelines on type 2 diabetes management. Searches were performed using PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases, and websites of national health care agencies, reimbursement agencies, and professional associations. Searches were limited to articles published in English between 2004 and 2014 and 1666 unique hits were identified, of which 22 were reviewed following screening.Results:
Only 6 of the 22 guidelines identified from North and South America, Western Europe, Greece, and Israel provided specific recommendations on intensive insulin therapy and the role of CSII, and only 1 provided information on the grade of evidence supporting recommendations. Quality appraisal based on the AGREE II tool suggested that published guidelines may have limitations in terms of search methodology and evidence grading, and findings were of mixed rigor and clarity. Only 3 guidelines described the population for whom CSII may be appropriate.Conclusions:
Guidelines need to improve the evidence base, rigor, clarity, and grading of evidence associated with recommendations on intensive insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes. Future updates may benefit from considering recent evidence on the efficacy of CSII in poorly controlled patients on MDI.